Dreaming : Journal of the Association for the Study of Dreams
Human Sciences Press, Inc., New York City

 Volume 1, Number 1, March 1991


Introductory Statement
Ernest Hartmann
Page 1

 Dreams That Work: The Relation of Dream Incorporation to Adaptation to Stressful Events
Rosalind D. Cartwright
Page 3

 Dreams That Poison Sleep: Dreaming in Holocaust Survivors
Peretz Lavie and Hanna Kaminer
Page 11

 Dreams That Work Or Dreams That Poison? What Does Dreaming Do?
An Editorial Essay
Ernest Hartmann
Page 23

 Dream Content: Random Or Meaningful?
Gordon G. Globus
Page 27

 Waking Self-understanding, REM Dream Self Representation,
and Cognitive Ability Variables at Ages 5-8
David Foulkes, Michael Hollifield, Laura Bradley,
Rebecca Terry, and Brenda Sullivan
Page 41

 Bizarreness in Dreams and Nightmares
Richard A. Bonato, Alan R. Moffitt, Robert F. Hoffmann, Marion A. Cuddy, and Frank L. Wimmer
Page 53

 Nightmares, Boundaries, and Creativity
Ross Levin, Jodi Galin, and Bill Zywiak
Page 63

 The Protagonist as Dreamer: The Dead Father in The Merchant
of Venice
Kay Stockholder
Page 75

 The Two Provinces of Dreams
Calvin S. Hall
Page 91

 An Introduction to "The Two Provinces of Dreams" (Commentary
on Hall's Paper)
G. William Domhoff
Page 95

 A Brief Perspective on Calvin Hall: Commentary on Hall's Paper
Robert L. Van de Castle
Page 99

 Hall! Like Gaul, Dreams Are Divided into Three Provinces: Commentary on Hall's Paper
Milton H. Kramer
Page 103

Cartwright, Rosalind D.
Dreams that work: The relation of dream incorporation to adaptation to stressful events.
Dreaming: Journal of the Association for the Study of Dreams. Vol 1(1) 3-9, Mar 1991.


Forty-nine volunteer subjects going through divorce, twenty-three women and twenty-six men, had sleep studies at the time of the initial break-up and one year later. Thirty-one of these were diagnosed as depressed on a combined criterion of meeting the Research Diagnostic Criteria (RDC) and a Beck Depression score above 14 and eighteen met neither criterion. The depressed and non-depressed did not differ in Dream-like Fantasy, but did in Affect Strength and type. Those who were depressed who incorporated the ex-spouse into their dreams at the time of the break-up were significantly less depressed and significantly better adjusted to their new life at the follow-up point than those who did not. These dreams were rated as having stronger affect. Persons who are depressed during a stressful time in their lives, who dream with strong feelings, and incorporate the stressor directly into their dreams appear to "work through" their depression more successfully than those who do not.

Key Words: dream; divorce; depression; stress.

 Lavie, Peretz; Kaminer, Hanna.
Dreams that poison sleep: Dreaming in Holocaust survivors.
Dreaming: Journal of the Association for the Study of Dreams. Vol 1(1) 11-21, Mar 1991.


Twenty-three Holocaust survivors: 12 well adjusted and 11 less adjusted, and 10 age-matched normal controls slept for 4 nights in the sleep laboratory. Subjects were awakened on the first, third and fourth nights from REM sleep for dream recall. Well-adjusted survivors had significantly lower recall rate (33.7%) than less adjusted (50.5%) and controls (80%). Dreams of the well-adjusted were significantly less complex and less salient than those of the controls, they also had significantly higher scores for denial of emotions toward their dreams after the awakening. Dreams of the less-adjusted had significantly higher scores for general anxiety, guilt anxiety, diffused anxiety, general aggression, inwardly directed aggression and interpersonal conflicts, than the controls. The less-adjusted also dreamed significantly more than the other two groups about their childhood. Half of their dreams were judged to be anxiety dreams. These results are discussed within the framework of the long-term sequelae of massive traumatic events on sleep and dreaming.

Key Words: dream; dream recall; Holocaust; trauma; stress.

 Hartmann, M.D., Ernest.
Dreams that work or dreams that poison? What does dreaming do? An editorial essay.
Dreaming: Journal of the Association for the Study of Dreams. Vol 1(1) 23-25, Mar 1991.


Dreaming may play different roles in adaptation to stress, depending on personality and overall style. Dreaming can be helpful in making connections and in integrating stressful events. Dreaming is not helpful to someone dealing with stress by walling it off or keeping it out of awareness. At the most basic level dreaming makes connections; it brings together material which is kept apart in waking.

Key Words: dream; dreaming; stress; trauma; condensation.

 Globus, M.D., Gordon G.
Dream content: Random or meaningful?
Dreaming: Journal of the Association for the Study of Dreams. Vol 1(1) 27-40, Mar 1991.


According to the new science of dreams, dream content is a function of memories selected by a random biological process. This process is most striking when there are the abrupt thematic changes which are so characteristic of dreams. For the received view from Freud, in contrast, selection of all memories is meaningful. The new science's critique of Freud is considered in detail and found to lack force. Examination of an exemplary dream shows unifying concepts that bridge across radical thematic discontinuities.

Key Words: dream; meaning; Freud; activation.

Foulkes, David; Hollifield, Michael; Bradley, Laura; Terry, Rebecca; Sullivan, Brenda.
Waking self-understanding, REM-dream self representation, and cognitive ability variables at ages 5-8.
Dreaming: Journal of the Association for the Study of Dreams. Vol 1(1) 41-51, Mar 1991.


Four aspects of self-understanding were studied cross-sectionally at ages 5-8 (n = 20 at each age): (1) self-as-object and (2) self-as-subject, as assessed by conventional interviews; (3) knowledge of distinctive physical appearance; and (4) portrayal of an active self character in REM dream reports. The waking self measures were not highly intercorrelated. None correlated with REM-dream self representation, which was not generally reported until age 8. At that age, dream self-representation had visuospatial correlates (a) similar to those predictive of dream reporting on REM awakenings and (b) similar to those of more "mature" performances on waking self measures (subjective sense of self, recognition of self's enduring physical characteristics, psychological characterization). We suggest that a common link may be mediation by conscious simulation.

Key Words: child; REM-sleep; self; self-character.

 Bonato, Richard A.; Moffitt, Alan R.; Hoffmann, Robert F.; Cuddy, Marion A.; Wimmer, Frank L.
Bizarreness in dreams and nightmares.
Dreaming: Journal of the Association for the Study of Dreams. Vol 1(1) 53-61, Mar 1991.


There exist two perspectives which have examined the concept of bizarreness in sleep mentation. One perspective holds that most dreams are bizarre whereas the other view holds that most are mundane. However, neither one of these perspectives have adequately considered the issue of bizarreness in nightmares. To fulfill a course requirement, 43 university students from a first year psychology course were asked to record one home-recalled dream and two home-recalled nightmares (one "typical" nightmare and one "worst" nightmare). Two bizarreness scales were used to analyze the 129 sleep mentation reports for bizarreness. There was no support for the hypothesis that "worst" nightmares would possess the most bizarreness. When the length of dreams and nightmares was held constant no differences were found in bizarreness or realism. The finding that bizarreness is not a feature common to all dream reports is not consistent with the activation synthesis hypothesis.

Key Words: dreams; bizarreness; nightmares; activation synthesis.

Levin, Ross; Galin, Jodi; Zywiak, Bill.
Nightmares, boundaries, and creativity.
Dreaming: Journal of the Association for the Study of Dreams. Vol 1(1) 63-74, Mar 1991.


The present study examined empirically whether individuals who report frequent nightmares evidence greater levels of creativity, and heightened access to, and adaptive usage of primary process, than low-nightmare controls. The Brick Test, Remote Associates Test, Hartmann's (1989) Boundary Questionnaire, and the Rorschach were administered to 40 nightmare subjects and 39 matched controls to assess these relationships. The results were mixed with nightmare subjects demonstrating more primary process but less adaptation of this material than controls with no differences between groups on the two measures of creativity. However, subsequent analyses with extreme contrasted groups suggest that this relationship may be valid for the most frequent nightmare group. In addition, the data provide further construct validity for Hartmann's Boundary Questionnaire. Overall, these findings support earlier work suggesting an association between nightmares and psychopathology. The results are discussed within the broader context of the relationship between creativity and psychopathology and suggestions are made for future research.

Key Words: nightmares; creativity; boundaries; thin boundaries; ego boundaries; primary process.

Stockholder, Kay.
The protagonist as dreamer: The dead father in The Merchant of Venice.
Dreaming: Journal of the Association for the Study of Dreams. Vol 1(1) 75-90, Mar 1991.


To regard a character within a work as the dreamer of his or her play allows one to include in a psychoanalytic understanding the social, political, and aesthetic aspects of literature. One would normally choose the protagonist, but because comedy obscures its emotional center, focussing on Portia's dead father in The Merchant of Venice lifts into prominence the emotional ramifications of the conflicting conceptions of marriage as based on romantic love and marriage as a means of ensuring the transmission of wealth. Portia's father in the casket motif translates incestuous longings into magical control, and represents in Shylock and Antonio his conflicting sense of himself as possessive of both his daughter and his wealth on the one hand, and, on the other hand, indifferent to wealth and unpossessive in love. The deadly hatred between the two figures expresses the self-loathing that is also represented in his death. The relations between figures and plot structures in this play and those in later plays suggest that Shakespeare's dramatic trajectory was shaped by his effort to resolve these persistent, but generative, conflicts. The unresolved conflicts around sex, women, money and traditional wealth in this and later plays show Shakespeare's characteristic fusion of an ideology of romantic love to traditional landed wealth. Shakespeare's portrayals contribute to our understanding of psychological ramifications of the uneasy integration of a commercial ethos and the related ideology of romantic love into a traditional social order.

Key Words: dream; dreamer; Merchant of Venice; Shakespeare.

 Hall, Calvin S.
The two provinces of dreams.
Dreaming: Journal of the Association for the Study of Dreams. Vol 1(1) 91-93, Mar 1991.


The late Calvin S. Hall wrote this previously unpublished paper in 1982, three years before his death. It is informal, chatty, and filled with Hall's opinions on a variety of topics related to dreams and psychology. It is also noteworthy for his comments on the work of his great mentor, psychologist Edward C. Tolman. The editors see this paper as a small contribution to the history of modern dream research, and are pleased to publish it in the first issue of Dreaming as a way of establishing a concrete connection with that past era.

Key Words: dream; dreaming; dream cognition; dream meaning.

Domhoff, G. William.
An introduction to "The two provinces of dreams" (Commentary on Hall's paper).
Dreaming: Journal of the Association for the Study of Dreams. Vol 1(1) 95-98, Mar 1991.


Calvin Hall's work has been underappreciated. Among his many important contributions to dream research, Hall was one of the first to propose a metaphoric theory of dream symbolism. His overall view of dreams is that they reveal our preoccupations and our conceptions.

Key Words: Hall, Calvin; dream; dream symbolism; dream interpretation.

 Van de Castle, Robert L.
A brief perspective on Calvin Hall (Commentary on Hall's paper).
Dreaming: Journal of the Association for the Study of Dreams. Vol 1(1) 99-102, Mar 1991.


Calvin Hall's contributions have not always been properly appreciated. Hall set forth a cognitive theory of dreams as early as 1953. To Hall, dreaming is a cognitive process and the images of a dream are "the embodiment of thoughts." Hall felt that dreams illuminate the basic conflicts and predicaments conceptualized by the dreamer.

Key Words: Hall, Calvin; dreams; dream theory; dream interpretation.

 Kramer, M.D., Milton.
Hall! Like Gaul, dreams are divided into three provinces (Commentary on Hall's paper).
Dreaming: Journal of the Association for the Study of Dreams. Vol 1(1) 103-105, Mar 1991.


Among dream researchers, Calvin Hall was the great quantifier whose work laid the foundation for the scientific study of the dream. Hall established certain quantitative norms about men's and women's dreams and many others which have stood up well. Hall speaks of two "provinces" of dreams the cognitive and the diagnostic, cognitive dealing with the construction of dreams and diagnostic dealing with what the dream says about the dreamer. I suggest a third possible "province": dream function.

Key Words: Hall, Calvin; dream; dream interpretation; dream function.

Journal Index

List of Issues/Abstracts Instructions for Contributors
Contact the Editor Online Articles
Announcements Article Discussion Archive 
  Copyright 2003 Association for the Study of Dreams. All Rights Reserved