Dreaming : Journal of the Association for the Study of Dreams
Kluwer Academic/Human Sciences Press, Inc., New York City

Volume 11, Number 1, March 2001

  


CONTENTS

 

A Note on the Social Referents of Dreams
Montague Ullman   
Page 1
Available online

A New Neurocognitive Theory of Dreams

G. William Domhoff
Page 13

Gender Differences in the Content Analysis of 240 Dream Reports from Brazilian Participants in Dream Seminars
Stanley Krippner and Jan Weinhold
Page 35

Behavioral Effects of Nightmares and Their Correlations to Personality Patterns
Martina Köthe and Reinhard Pietrowsky
Page 43


Montague Ullman  
A Note on the Social Referents of Dreams
Dreaming: Journal of the Association for the Study of Dreams. Vol 11(1) 1-12, Mar 2001.

Abstract:

 Social as well as personal referents appear in dreams and, when recognized as such, provide insight into how unresolved social issues seep into the personal domain at an unconscious level. Dream-sharing groups (because of the time available and other factors) offer a particularly favorable opportunity to observe this interplay. The truth-telling nature of dreaming consciousness not only exposes disconnects from our past arising out of our unique personal developmental history, but also calls attention to the way such disconnects are reinforced by current bias and prejudice. The concern of the dream with connectivity leads to the broader issue of the role dreams play in maintaining the unity of the human species and its survival.

Key Words: dreams; society; social referents.

Available online


G. William Domhoff  
A New Neurocognitive Theory of Dreams
 
Dreaming: Journal of the Association for the Study of Dreams. Vol 11(1) 13-33, Mar 2001.

Abstract:

 Discoveries in three distinct areas of dream research make it possible to suggest the outlines of a new neurocognitive theory of dreaming. The first relevant findings come from assessments of patients with brain injuries, which show that lesions in different areas have differential effects on dreaming and thereby imply the contours of the neural network necessary for dreaming. The second set of results comes from work with children ages 3-15 in the sleep laboratory, which reveals that only 20-30% of REM period awakenings lead to dream reports up to age 9 and that the dreams of children under age 5 are bland and static in content. The third set of findings comes from a rigorous system of content analysis, which demonstrates the repetitive nature of much dream content and that dream content in general is continuous with waking conceptions and emotional preoccupations. Based on these findings, dreaming is best understood as a developmental cognitive achievement that depends upon the maturation and maintenance of a specific network of forebrain structures. The output of this neural network for dreaming is guided by a “continuity principle” linked to current personal concerns on the one hand and a “repetition principle” rooted in past emotional preoccupations on the other.

Key Words: dreaming; dream content; neurocognition; neuropsychology; cognitive development.


Stanley Krippner and Jan Weinhold  
Gender Differences in the Content Analysis of 240 Dream Reports from Brazilian Participants in Dream Seminars
  
 Dreaming: Journal of the Association for the Study of Dreams. Vol 11(1) 35-42, Mar 2001.

Abstract:

This study asked the question, "Are there significant content differences between male and female dream reports obtained in dream seminars conducted in Brazil?" Each of the 240 (137 female, 103 male) research participants volunteered recent dream reports (one per person) during dream seminars that he or she attended between 1990 and 1998. Dreams were scored according to Hall-Van de Castle criteria. Comparative Cohen h-statistics revealed several gender differences. Further study is recommended because the dream reports did not represent Brazil's social-economic diversity, and may not have been characteristic of the totality of participants' dream lives.    

Key Words: gender differences; dream reports; Brazil.


Martina Köthe and Reinhard Pietrowsky
Behavioral Effects of Nightmares and Their Correlations to Personality Patterns
Dreaming: Journal of the Association for the Study of Dreams. Vol 11(1) 43-52, Mar 2001.

Abstract:

 Factors affecting or inducing nightmares have been investigated repeatedly. However, little research is carried out on the behavioral consequences of nightmares. The present study thus served to investigate behavioral effects of nightmares in correlation to personality variables. 41 non-clinical participants, who suffer from about 2 nightmares per month recorded their dreams and nightmares over a 4-week period. A nightmare was defined as a dream that frightens the dreamer and could be recalled in detail on awakening. Anxiety and mood were monitored every morning. All nightmares and their behavioral consequences were noted on a questionnaire. Personality traits and life events were assessed at the beginning of the investigation. 100 nightmares were reported by the subjects over the 4-week period (range: 0 - 8). Following a nightmare, the subjects were significantly more anxious and were of a less stable mental condition compared to nights without nightmares. Additionally, nightmares induced physical complaints. This was considered to be an indicator that something was wrong in their lives and induced them to solve personal problems. The behavioral effects were most pronounced in subjects scoring high on neuroticism and on the number of  physical  complaints and low on achievement orientation and openness. The results suggest that sufferers of nightmares intend to change their lives, especially those with a neurotic-like personality.

Key Words: nightmares; personality; live events; mood; behavior.

 


 

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