Dreaming : Journal of the Association for the Study of Dreams
Kluwer Academic/Human Sciences Press, Inc., New York City

Dreaming Volume 12, Number 1, March 2002
 


 

CONTENTS

Dream Interpretation With Heterosexual Dating Couples
Misty R. Kolchakian and Clara E. Hill
Page 1

Questionnaires and Diaries as Research Instruments in Dream Research: Methodological Issues
Michael Schredl
Page 17

Dream Recall Frequency and Dream Detail as Mediated by Personality, Behavior and Attitude
Sommer Wolcott and Chehalis M. Strapp
Page 27

Comparing the Content of Sleep Paralysis and Dream Reports
Jennifer D. Parker and Susan J. Blackmore
Page 45


 

Misty R. Kolchakian and Clara E. Hill
Dream Interpretation With Heterosexual Dating Couples

Dreaming: Journal of the Association for the Study of Dreams
. Vol 12 (1), 1-16, Mar 2002.

Abstract:

We examined the effectiveness of the Hill cognitive-experiential model of dream interpretation for working with male and female partners in heterosexual dating couples. Results showed that female partners who received dream interpretation (N = 20) had greater improvements in relationship well-being, insight, and gains from dream interpretation than female partners in the wait-list control group (N = 20). However, male partners who received dream interpretation (N = 20) did not make significant improvements as compared to male partners who did not receive dream interpretation (N = 20). Hence, couples dream interpretation may be more helpful for women than men. Greater effort may be needed to involve men in couples dream sessions in hopes that they will show more gains in relationship well-being and insight.

KEY WORDS: dream interpretation; couples; gender; relationship well-being; insight.


 

Michael Schredl
Questionnaires and Diaries as Research Instruments in Dream Research: Methodological Issues

Dreaming: Journal of the Association for the Study of Dreams.
Vol 12 (1), 17-26, Mar 2002.

Abstract:

Dream questionnaires are widely used in dream research to measure dream recall frequency and various aspects of dream life. The present study has investigated the intercorrelation between questionnaire and diary measures. 285 participants completed a dream questionnaire and kept a dream diary over a two-week period. Results indicate that keeping a dream diary increased dream recall in low and medium dream recallers but decreased dream recall in high dream recallers. The correlation coefficients between questionnaire items measuring aspects of dream content and diary data were large, except for a more complex scale (realism/bizarreness). In the low recall group, however, considerably lower coefficients were found indicating that recall and sampling processes affect the response to global items measuring dream content. Using the example of testing gender differences, the findings of the present study clearly indicate that the measurement technique affects the results. Whereas sufficient internal consistency and retest reliability have been demonstrated for various dream questionnaires, future research should focus on the aspects of validity by comparing questionnaire data to dream content analysis of at least 20 dreams per person.

KEY WORDS: dream questionnaire; dream diary; dream recall frequency; dream content; reliability; validity.



 

Sommer Wolcott and Chehalis M. Strapp
Dream Recall Frequency and Dream Detail as Mediated by Personality, Behavior, and
Attitude
Dreaming: Journal of the Association for the Study of Dreams
. Vol 12 (1), 27-44, Mar 2002.

Abstract:

Many studies investigated how personality, behavior and attitude mediate dream recall, but few distinguish between measures of dream recall frequency: the number of dreams experienced in a specified time frame and dream detail: individual ratings of vividness or detailed content of dreams. This study compared undergraduates (n = 173) self-reported dream recall frequency, and dream detail, with behaviors, attitude toward dreaming, and scores on scales of Extraversion/Introversion and Type A/B. Dream recall frequency and dream detail manifested different patterns of association in relation to behaviors, attitude and personality. Dream recall frequency was associated with the frequency of experiencing emotionally disturbing dreams and trying to interpret dreams, while detail of dreams was associated with positive attitude toward dreaming and Type B personality. Although males and females both held positive attitudes toward dreaming, females experienced more emotionally disturbing dreams and felt unable to control their dreams. Interactions between personality and gender emerged for behaviors associated with dreaming. Researchers are encouraged to differentiate between dream recall frequency and dream detail.

KEY WORDS: dream recall frequency; dream detail; personality; attitude toward dreaming.


 

Jennifer D. Parker and Susan J. Blackmore
Comparing the Content of Sleep Paralysis and Dream Reports

Dreaming: Journal of the Association for the Study of Dreams.
Vol 12 (1), 45-59, Mar 2002.

Abstract:

Hall and Van de Castle's method of content analysis, which has been extensively applied to dream content, was used to analyse SP reports. 64 males and 52 females each contributed one SP report. These were content analysed and compared with dream norms, revealing the similarities between dreams and SP. Findings indicate that, emotionally, SP is a more uniform state than dreaming, and that interactions between characters are more aggressive, with the "dreamer" being the victim of the attacks. SP reports contained more cognitive and auditory experiences, and four times as many references to parts of the body. Only one difference was found between males' and females' SP reports; that females reported more sexual activity. A description of a 'typical' SP episode is presented, based upon the content analysis system. It was concluded that while SP and dreams share some subjective similarities, they can be identified as separate sleep states by the content of written reports. Furthermore, Hall and Van de Castle's system may provide the foundations for systematic comparisons of other sleep mentation and fantasy states.

KEY WORDS: sleep paralysis; dreams; content analysis.


 

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