Dreaming : Journal of the Association for the Study of Dreams
Human Sciences Press, Inc., New York City

Volume 2, Number 3, September 1992


Gender Differences and the Effect of Stress on Dream Recall: A 30-Day Diary Report
Roseanne Armitage
Page 137

The Relationship of Nightmare Frequency to Nightmare Suffering with Implications for Treatment and Research

Kathryn Belicki
Page 143

Partially Automated Dream Analysis: An Application and Extension of Foulkes' Scoring System for Latent Structure
Aude Dufresne and George W. Baylor
Page 149

Reflection During REM Dreaming
Laura Bradley, Michael Hollifield, and David Foulkes
Page 161

Light in Lucid Dreams: A Review
George Gillespie
Page 167

Moments of Truth: Dreams in Russian Literature
Lynn Visson
Page 181

A Dream Is a Poem: A Metaphorical Analysis
Wilse B. Webb
Page 191

Armitage, Roseanne.
Gender differences and the effect of stress on dream recall: A 30-day diary report.
Dreaming: Journal of the Association for the Study of Dreams. Vol 2(3) 137-141, Sep 1992.


Several studies have suggested that dream recall is increased during times of emotional stress and depression (Cartwright, 1979; Cartwright, 1986; Hartmann, 1973). These data have been taken as support for the "emotional information processing function of dreams" introduced in the late 1960s (Breger, 1969). Research with combat veterans and trauma survivors by contrast, indicates very low dream recall among individuals exposed to extreme stress (Kramer, Schoen, & Kinney, 1984; Lavie & Kaminer, 1991). This finding appears to be at odds with the adaptive role of dreams in depression reported by Cartwright.
Differences in gender distributions among sample populations may be a contributory factor to the seemingly disparate findings. For example, Cartwright's data are based on females undergoing depression or divorce, or both, whereas the work with post-traumatic stress and combat victims focuses on male participants. These data suggest that males and females may respond differentially to some forms of stress.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of self-related stress levels on dream recall and gender.

Key Words: dream recall; stress; gender.


Belicki, Kathryn.
The relationship of nightmare frequency to nightmare suffering with implications for treatment and research.
Dreaming: Journal of the Association for the Study of Dreams. Vol 2(3) 143-148, Sep 1992.


The present research challenges the assumption that nightmare suffering can be operationally defined as nightmare frequency. Four groups of undergraduate students, for a total sample of 540 (358 women, 165 men, 17 undeclared), estimated their nightmare frequency in the prior year and completed a questionnaire assessing the amount of waking distress associated with their nightmares (nightmare distress). This questionnaire included an item on which they indicated their interest in therapy for nightmares. While nightmare frequency was significantly correlated with nightmare distress and interest in therapy, the correlations were sufficiently modest to suggest that these two variables should be differentiated both in theoretical/empirical studies of nightmares and in approaches to treatment with nightmares.

Key Words: dream; nightmares; nightmare frequency; nightmare suffering.


Dufresne, Aude; Baylor, George W.
Partially automated dream analysis: An application and extension of Foulkes' scoring system for latent structure.
Dreaming: Journal of the Association for the Study of Dreams. Vol 2(3) 149-159, Sep 1992.


A computer program with tutorial was written that permits users to code their dream reports into a propositional format derived from Foulkes' Scoring System for Latent Structure (SSLS). From the coded reports, the system constructs a "problem space" comprised of variables for describing dream states and operators. To test the system, one subject (S) coded four morning dream reports. Statistical analyses of contingency tables among variables of the problem space were then carried out in order to extract sequential and simultaneous dependencies from the data. Where significance obtained, the more frequent dependencies appeared to reveal regularities in the S's dream generation process.

Key Words: dream; dream analysis, latent structure.


Bradley, Laura; Hollifield, Michael; Foulkes, David.
Reflection during REM dreaming.
Dreaming: Journal of the Association for the Study of Dreams. Vol 2(3) 161-166, Sep 1992.


Lucidity is one form of reflective self-consciousness during dreaming. Here, we report two studies in which subjects described the spontaneous incidence of any form of reflective awareness during REM dreaming and also judged whether, in wakefulness, dream situations would provoke reflection. In both studies, intra-REM reflection was reported, but it was more often absent than present in situations judged likely to provoke reflection in wakefulness. Qualitatively, intra-REM reflection seemed much like (imagined) waking reflection, with their continuity including the fact that neither relies on episodic memory. Intermittent lucidity was found to be associated with both reflection and phasic activation.

Key Words: dreaming; lucid dreaming; reflection in dreaming.


Gillespie, George.
Light in lucid dreams: A review.
Dreaming: Journal of the Association for the Study of Dreams. Vol 2(3) 167-179, Sep 1992.


The writer reviews contemporary discussions about phenomena of light associated with lucid dreaming. The Tibetan literature is first discussed. Contemporary writers who describe their own experiences of light are reviewed, including G. Scott Sparrow, Patricia Garfield, Kenneth Kelzer, and George Gillespie. Other prominent writers about lucid dreams are also reviewed, especially Jayne Gackenbach and Harry Hunt, who bring experiences of light into their discussions. In conclusion, the writer suggests that theories of mental imagery will play an important role in any understanding of the phenomena of light in lucid dreams.

Key Words: dream; lucid dream; light in dreams.


Visson, Lynn.
Moments of truth: Dreams in Russian literature.
Dreaming: Journal of the Association for the Study of Dreams. Vol 2(3) 181-189, Sep 1992.

Key Words: dreams; dreams in literature; Russian literature.

Webb, Wilse B.
A dream is a poem: A metaphorical analysis.
Dreaming: Journal of the Association for the Study of Dreams. Vol 2(3) 191-202, Sep 1992.


This is a metaphorical analysis of a dream as a poem. From this perspective the dimensionalization or categorization of dreams, either to better understand dreams or to serve as independent variables, seems a dubious enterprise. It is also clear that dreams, like poems, may serve a wide range of functions and express a wide range of meanings. They are unlikely to reflect single psychodynamic functions and they may express meanings ranging from trivial to profound. A poem or even a series of poems can seldom tell us about the poet. Dreams contain similar problems in telling us about the dreamer. Dreams, freed from actuarial and psychodynamic shackles, should be viewed as "artistic creations." As such, they may be considered as provocative, revealing, stimulating, inspiring, frightening or beautiful. Or discarded as silly, banal, uninteresting or poorly done.

Key Words: dream; poem; dream metaphor.

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