Human Sciences Press, Inc., New York City

Volume 3, Number 1, March 1993


Personality Correlates of Dream Recall: Who Remembers?
Veronica K. Tonay
Page 1

The Pattern of Self-Reflectiveness in Dream Reports
Mary Darling, Robert Hoffmann, Alan Moffitt and Sheila Purcell
Page 9

Delayed Onset of Post-Traumatic Nightmares: Case Report and Implications
Melvin R. Lansky and Carol R. Bley
Page 21

A Classification System for Longitudinal Analysis of Dream Patterns
Linnea C. Brush
Page 33

The Dream As a Tool for Historical Research: Reexamining Life in Eighteenth Century Virginia Through the Dreams of a Gentleman: William Byrd, II, 1674-1744
Susan Sleeper-Smith
Page 49

Why Study Dreams? A Religious Studies Perspective
Wendy Doniger and Kelly Bulkley
Page 69
Available online

Tonay, Veronica K.
Personality correlates of dream recall: Who remembers?
Dreaming: Journal of the Association for the Study of Dreams. Vol 3(1) 1-8, Mar 1993.


Prior studies seeking to relate dream recall frequency to personality have been of narrow scope. The present study compares the self-rated recall frequency of 87 undergraduates with scores on adjustment, anxiety, attitude toward dreams, ego strength, introspectiveness, social introversion, fantasy-proneness, metaphorical scope, repression and suggestibility, using seven personality measures, including the MMPI, CPI and Self-Consciousness Scale. Results suggest that these personality variables do not predict dream recall frequency. Rather, recall was significantly related to positive attitude toward dreams (r = .56). Fantasy-proneness (fantasy behavior in childhood and frequency of adult fantasy) was also significantly correlated with the criterion (r = .29). Future dream recall researchers are encouraged to further explore both variables, as well as thin boundaries, imagery orientation and motivation to recall.

Key Words: dreams; dream recall; personality.


Darling, Mary; Hoffmann, Robert; Moffitt, Alan; Purcell, Sheila.
The pattern of self-reflectiveness in dream reports.
Dreaming: Journal of the Association for the Study of Dreams. Vol 3(1) 9-19, Mar 1993.


Shifts in levels of self-reflectiveness (SR) across a series of dream reports have been theoretically linked to psychological development. The hypothesized pattern is one of a linear increase in SR. Development of SR within a single dream report has not been addressed and is investigated in the present study. Dream reports, collected in the context of an experimental manipulation to increase dream SR, were broken down into textual information units. Each unit was assigned an SR score and the resulting sequences of SR scores were analyzed. Singlemindedness was found to be a stable aspect of dreaming. The treatment conditions increased the maximum SR reached in the dream reports of the experimental groups and some evidence of group differences in the pattern of changes in SR were found. It was concluded that the induction of lucid dreaming increases maximum levels of SR attained in the dream but does not markedly disrupt the serial organization of SR in dream reports.

Key Words: dreams; self-reflectiveness; lucid dreaming.


Lansky, Melvin R.; Bley, Carol R.
Delayed onset of post-traumatic nightmares: Case report and implications.
Dreaming: Journal of the Association for the Study of Dreams. Vol 3(1) 21-31, Mar 1993.


A case is reported in which post-traumatic nightmares first arose twelve years after the trauma. The authors hypothesize that, in this case, predisposing childhood trauma generated repetitive attempts at reparative experiences with further humiliation and attendant narcissistic rage that amplified the conflict, thus exposing the patient to external dangers. The nightmare was instigated by an upsurge of shame and rage generated by the same conflict in the dream day. The recurrent nightmare screened that conflict by externalizing sexual desire and rage. Cautions about generalizing the hypothesis are discussed.

Key Words: post-traumatic nightmare; nightmare; dream; trauma; traumatic dream.


Brush, Linnea C.
A classification system for longitudinal analysis of dream patterns.
Dreaming: Journal of the Association for the Study of Dreams. Vol 3(1) 33-48, Mar 1993.


A system for classifying dream patterns over time is presented. The method includes selecting, recording and classifying dream symbols for a given dreamer. Key symbols are identified and indexed. These symbols are then broken down into "clusters" that identify significant patterns, such as general themes, meta symbols, companion symbols, and time clusters. Symbols can fall into patterns based on time spans, frequency, concurrence, and appearance/disappearance. These patterns are different from the patterns that might emerge from individual dream study only. Further research is needed utilizing this method for long-term dream pattern analysis.

Key Words: dream classification; dream symbols; dream patterns; longitudinal dream analysis.


Sleeper-Smith, Susan.
The dream as a tool for historical research: Reexamining life in eighteenth century Virginia through the dreams of a gentleman: William Byrd, II, 1674-1744.
Dreaming: Journal of the Association for the Study of Dreams. Vol 3(1) 49-68, Mar 1993.


This paper utilizes the recent findings of science-based dream research, rather than the traditional framework of psychohistory, to show how the dreams recorded in the diary of one man, William Byrd II, parallel the tensions which pervaded his life in colonial Virginia. While there is no established meaning of dreams, it is known that traumatic dreams of death, separation, and mutilation increase with stress and that they are directly associated with personal distress. The nightmarish dreams of Byrd's diaries directly parallel the everyday events that produced anxiety in his life. This paper incorporates the references that Byrd made to illness, death and personal failure from his diaries and other writings to show the correspondence between his everyday life and his frightening nocturnal visions. By focusing on the presence of traumatic dreams rather than on their analytical interpretation this paper suggests that such dreams may be a viable historical tool for exploring the vast reservoir of dream material found in many seventeenth and eighteenth century diaries.

Key Words: William Byrd II; dream interpretation; traumatic dreams.


Doniger, Wendy; Bulkley, Kelly.
Why study dreams? A religious studies perspective.
Dreaming: Journal of the Association for the Study of Dreams. Vol 3(1) 69-73, Mar 1993.

Available online

Key Words: dreams; religion; myths; spirituality.

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