Human Sciences Press, Inc., New York City

Volume 4, Number 1, March 1994


Disassociation and Reassociation of Subliminally Induced Stimulus Material in Drawings of Dreams and Drawings of Waking Free Imagery
W. Leuschner, S. Hau, E. Brech, and S. Volk
Page 1

Contexts of Dream Interpretation Among American Therapists and Pastoral Counselors
Mary-Therese B. Dombeck
Page 29

Milton Kramer
Page 43

Sigmund Freud's The Interpretation of Dreams: The Initial Response (1899 1908)
Milton Kramer
Page 47

The Current Book Reviews
Milton Kramer
Page 53

Retrospective Review: Sigmund Freud's The Interpretation of Deams
Wilse B. Webb
Page 54

Review of Freud's The Interpretation of Dreams
John S. Antrobus
Page 58

Review of Sigmund Freud's The Interpretation of Dreams
Gordon Globus
Page 60

The Interpretation of Dreams Revisited
David R. Hawkins
Page 64

Review of Freud's The Interpretation of Dreams
Morton F. Reiser
Page 67

Freud's The Interpretation of Dreams: A Comment
Gerald Vogel
Page 70

Freud in Lhasa: The Interpretation of Dreams on "The Roof of the World"
Carol Schreier Rupprecht
Page 71

Review of Freud's The Interpretation of Dreams
Rosalind Cartwright
Page 74

Comments on Freud's The Interpretation of Dreams
Ernest Hartmann
Page 76

A Brief Appraisal of Freud's Dream Theory
Adolf Grünbaum
Page 80

The Interpretation of Dreams and the Scientific Study of Dreaming
David Foulkes
Page 82

Interpretation in The Interpretation of Dreams
Don Kuiken
Page 85

Leuschner, W.; Hau, S.; Brech, E.; Volk, S.
Disassociation and reassociation of subliminally induced stimulus material in drawings of dreams and drawings of waking free imagery.
Dreaming: Journal of the Association for the Study of Dreams. Vol 4(1) 1-27, Mar 1994.


Subliminal induction of stimulus material is especially suitable for the study of unconscious perception as well as thought processes and dream processes. In the present study we investigated the effects of a triangular shaped stimulus on free-imagery-drawings and dream drawings. Based on the statistical analysis of data obtained from blind ratings and subjective rater evidence, the processing of subliminal visual stimuli in the waking state and in dreams can be described by a disassociation-reassociation hypothesis. Perceived stimulus pictures are disassociated into single objects and into their sub-features (form, color, concept, sound) immediately after stimulation. Depending on the waking state and the kind of recall they emerge in a reassociated form. In this study the drawings of REM-dreams brought back less material and qualitatively different material, compared to drawings of waking free imagery. REM-dream drawings more often represent products of disintegration which can be interpreted as weakening of reassociative processes in altered states of consciousness. This suggests that stimulus material is inserted primarily into the original dream but secondarily also flows into the dream depiction. The drawing act itself can be labeled as an "act of reassociation" or "carry back" which indicates its origin like a signature.

Key Words: subliminal stimulation; dream; dream drawings; preconscious processing; lateralization.


Dombeck, Mary-Therese B.
Contexts of dream interpretation among American therapists and pastoral counselors.
Dreaming: Journal of the Association for the Study of Dreams. Vol 4(1) 29-42, Mar 1994.


Ethnographic studies of traditional societies suggest that dream telling and dream interpretation are socially and culturally constituted. This paper explores the popularization and influence of Freud on Americans particularly psychotherapists and pastoral counselors. One of the dreams from Freud's work, The Interpretation of Dreams, which was used by B. Kilborne in his research with dream interpreters in Morocco, is interpreted by psychotherapists and pastoral counselors in the United States. It is, therefore, possible to compare the responses of the Moroccan dream interpreters with the responses of the Americans. Freud's opinions of the same dream are, of course, a matter of record.

Key Words: anthropology; American Society; psychotherapists; Freud's influence.

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