Dreaming : Journal of the Association for the Study of Dreams

Human Sciences Press, Inc., New York City

Volume 4, Number 2, June 1994


The Junction Point Model: A Field Model of Waking, Sleeping, and Dreaming, Relating Dream Witnessing, the Waking/Sleeping Transition, and Transcendental Meditation in Terms of a Common Psychophysiologic State
Frederick Travis
Page 91

Dreaming About My Patient: A Case Illustration of a Therapist's Initial Dream
Henry Abramovitch and Tsila Lange
Page 105

Dreaming in a Totalitarian Society: A Reading of Charlotte Beradt's The Third Reich of Dreams
Kelly Bulkeley
Page 115

Sleep and Dreaming Characteristics of Frequent Nightmare Subjects in a University Population
Ross Levin
Page 127

The Nightmare: Biological and Psychological Origins
Carrie Bearden
Page 139

Travis, Frederick.
The junction point model: A field model of waking, sleeping, and dreaming, relating dream witnessing, the waking/sleeping transition, and Transcendental Meditation in terms of a common psychophysiologic state.
Dreaming: Journal of the Association for the Study of Dreams. Vol 4(2) 91-104, Jun 1994.


A field model of waking, sleeping, and dreaming, called the junction point model, portrays waking, NREM-sleep, and REM-dreaming as expressions of a single, undifferentiated state. EEG data are presented that support this model: (1) in the transitions between waking, NREM-sleep, and REM dreaming, bursts of similar frequency EEG 7 to 9 Hz are seen that do not seem generated by known sleep mechanisms, suggesting a common experience available at these transitions; (2) EEG spectra during Transcendental Meditation practice, designed to lead to the experience of the underlying field, an experience called "transcendental consciousness," are similar to those reported during the waking/sleeping transition; and (3) during the co-existence of transcendental consciousness and sleep, called witnessing sleep, the characteristic alpha activity of transcendental consciousness is seen along with the delta activity of deep sleep. This model provides a structure to integrate ordinary experience during waking, sleeping, and dreaming with more universal potentials of human experience, often referred to as higher states of consciousness.

Key Words: sleeping; dreaming; states of consciousness; Transcendental Meditation; sleep onset.


Abramovitch, Henry; Lange, Tsila.
Dreaming about my patient: A case illustration of a therapist's initial dream.
Dreaming: Journal of the Association for the Study of Dreams. Vol 4(2) 105-113, Jun 1994.


Therapists traditionally conceptualize dreaming about patients as indicative of a neurotic countertransference. In this article, we propose an additional paradigm in which the therapist's dream may act as an analogue to the patient's initial dream, first described by Jung, viz. that the therapist's dream about the patient may have special diagnostic and prognostic significance for the therapy. A case illustration is given of such a 'syntonic' paradigm. The difficulty for the therapist lies in sorting out neurotic from relevant aspects of the dream. Therapeutic performance anxiety is also discussed. The role of therapists' dreams as an aspect of therapeutic interaction is worthy of further study.

Key Words: dreaming; psychotherapy; therapists' dreams.


Bulkeley, Kelly.
Dreaming in a totalitarian society: A reading of Charlotte Beradt's The Third Reich of Dreams.
Dreaming: Journal of the Association for the Study of Dreams. Vol 4(2) 115-125, Jun 1994.
Charlotte Beradt's book The Third Reich of Dreams (1966), which presents the hundreds of dreams she gathered from people living in Nazi Germany in the years 1933 to 1939, is an extremely valuable resource for dream researchers interested in the social dimensions of dreams and dreaming. However, Beradt's work has rarely been examined in any depth. This essay offers a careful, detailed reading of The Third Reich of Dreams, using D. W. Winnicott's theory of transitional phenomena as a guide. The essay suggests that dream studies can be a potent means of studying troubled societies, and perhaps of helping those societies overcome their problems.

Key Words: dreaming; Third Reich; Nazi; society.


Levin, Ross.
Sleep and dreaming characteristics of frequent nightmare subjects in a university population.
Dreaming: Journal of the Association for the Study of Dreams. Vol 4(2) 127-137, Jun 1994.


Self-reports of nightmare frequency were collected in seven independent nonclinical populations (n = 3433). In addition, sleep and dreaming characteristics of frequent nightmare subjects and low-nightmare controls were compared in three smaller subsamples. Reporting rates of nightmare occurrence were remarkably stable with females reporting significantly more nightmare attacks (p < .001) than males. Analysis of sleep and dreaming parameters reliably differentiated nightmare reporters from low-nightmare controls on a number of measures. Nightmare subjects rated their sleep quality as poorer (p < .05), had greater dream recall (p < .001), were more affected by their dreams (p < .001) and nightmares (p < .001), and reported more aggression in their dreams (p < .001) than controls. Thus, nightmare sufferers appear to be significantly more internally directed and more sensitive to their generalized dreaming states. The results are discussed within the context of Hartmann's (1984) nightmare theory.

Key Words: sleep; dreams; nightmare.


Bearden, Carrie.
The nightmare: Biological and psychological origins.
Dreaming: Journal of the Association for the Study of Dreams. Vol 4(2) 139-152, Jun 1994.


Research on the psychological origins and personality correlates of frequent nightmares suggests that there are three primary categories of nightmares with three distinct etiologies: 1) chronic, lifelong nightmares that are phenomena of personality, 2) traumatic nightmares related to Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, and 3) drug-induced nightmares. All three, however, appear to be related to a hyper-reactivity of the nervous system which may have the effect of increasing REM-pressure. This paper evaluates nightmare prevalence in the general population, personality characteristics of frequent nightmare sufferers, the relationship between PTSD and REM-sleep disturbance, and the biochemistry of the nightmare. Because, firstly, frequent nightmares may be considered markers for schizophrenia and because, secondly, nightmares are viewed as a hallmark of PTSD, this material may have important clinical implications.

Key Words: nightmares; schizophrenia; REM-sleep; PTSD.

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