Dreaming : Journal of the Association for the Study of Dreams
Human Sciences Press, Inc., New York City

Volume 5, Number 2, June 1995



The Collection of Home and Laboratory Dreams by Means of an Instrumental Response Technique

Stephen R. Lloyd and Rosalind D. Cartwright
Page 63

Describing and Modeling Hypnagogic Imagery Using A Systematic Self-Observation Procedure
Tore A. Nielsen
Page 75

Speaking of Dreams: A Social Constructionist Account of
Dream Sharing

Harilaos Stefanakis
Page 95

The Use of the Hartmann Boundary Questionnaire with an Adolescent Population
Dave Cowen and Ross Levin
Page 105


The Functions of Dreaming edited by Alan Moffitt, Milton Kramer, and Robert Hoffman
Reviewed by Helene Sophrin Porte
Page 115

Conquering Bad Dreams and Nightmares by B. Krakow and J. Niehardt
Reviewed by Kathryn Belicki and Daniel M. Bernstein
Page 121

Lloyd, Stephen R.; Cartwright, Rosalind D.
The collection of home and laboratory dreams by means of an instrumental response technique.
Dreaming: Journal of the Association for the Study of Dreams. Vol 5(2) 63-73, Jun 1995.


A new technology for dream collection, an instrumental response technique, was used to record dreams in both the sleep laboratory and in the subjects' own homes. This technique employs a switch attached to the sleeper's hand. The subject is asked to depress the switch to signal the presence of dream experiences during sleep. Comparisons were made between dream reports from home and laboratory collected under uniform sampling conditions. Differences in signalling frequency between REM and NREM sleep were noted. The effect of training to identify dreams by awakenings from REM when no spontaneous signal was given was examined. Results showed that: 1) There were no significant content differences between home and laboratory dreams when the dreams were collected in the same way. 2) This technique is useful in identifying dreams taking place in sleep other than REM which has been difficult to do in the past. 3) Subjects trained to identify dreams performed better than untrained subjects.

Key Words: sleep; dreams; dream recall; instrumental responses.


Nielsen, Tore A.
Describing and modeling hypnagogic imagery using a systematic self observation procedure.
Dreaming: Journal of the Association for the Study of Dreams. Vol 5(2) 75-94, Jun 1995.


The published literature suggests that systematic self-observation may be a suitable method for clarifying the nature and correlates of hypnagogic imagery and thus a useful adjunct to psychophysiological and cognitive studies of sleep onset. The potential applicability of one recently proposed self-observation procedure (Nielsen, 1992) to such studies is demonstrated in the present work. The procedure permits numerous hypnagogic images to be collected during spontaneous drowsy periods occurring during the day. The observer sits in an upright, head unsupported position, fixes an observational intent, and pays attention to internal events; images are observed, transcribed and then assessed for their likely memory sources. The procedure has been pilot-tested by the author in four exploratory studies comprising over 250 hypnagogic images. Neuromuscular events accompanying these images (e.g., head nods, leg jerks) and EEG correlates of the images are described. Certain distinctions among imagery types are suggested, e.g., fleeting vs. fully formed, images with self movement vs. images with non-self movement. Silberer's conclusions regarding the 'autosymbolic' function of hypnagogic images are supported and extended by the results. Four types of memory element (immediate, short-, medium-, and long-term) appear to have contributed causally to the formation of these hypnagogic images and are illustrated. To demonstrate how the self-observational method may be used to model the formation of hypnagogic imagery from such memory sources, a single sample image and its multiple memory sources are described and analyzed in detail.

Key Words: hypnagogic imagery; sleep onset; dreaming; systematic self-observation; introspection; EEG.


Stefanakis, Harilaos
Speaking of dreams: A social constructionist account of dream sharing.
Dreaming: Journal of the Association for the Study of Dreams. Vol 5(2) 95-104, Jun 1995.


Dreams are private experiences that can only be shared through social, often discursive, interactions. Dream sharing, therefore, is performed in a social context and involves social goals. The aim of this paper is to examine dream sharing from a social constructionist perspective. Through an analysis of everyday discourse, a conceptualization of dreams is offered which highlights some of the linguistic resources people use in telling dream accounts. This is followed by a description of how these resources are used to accomplish two types of social goals in everyday social interactions. Lastly, implications of this analysis are briefly discussed with respect to a specific social context, namely the therapeutic context.

Key Words: dream sharing; social constructionism; language.


Cowen, Dave; Levin, Ross.
The use of the Hartmann boundary questionnaire with an adolescent population.
Dreaming: Journal of the Association for the Study of Dreams. Vol 5(2) 105-114, Jun 1995.


Hartmann (1991) recently developed the Boundary Questionnaire (BQ) to measure the structure of mental boundaries in adults. To date however, the scale has not been used with an adolescent population. The present study assessed the validity of the BQ for adolescents by determining whether the scale would differentiate between adolescents in manners consistent with adult findings. As predicted, adolescents who demonstrated thinner boundaries on the BQ tended to be female, and reported significantly greater levels of dream recall, nightmare frequency and nightmare disturbance when compared with a control group of thick boundary adolescents, confirming the usage of the BQ as a valid personality measure. The findings are discussed within the framework of adolescent ego development.

Key Words: Hartmann Boundary Questionnaire; adolescent; dream recall; nightmares; ego development.

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