Human Sciences Press, Inc., New York City
Dreaming, Volume 7, Number 4, December 1997
Determinants and Mental Health Effects
of Dream Recall among Children Living in Traumatic Conditions
Bizarreness of the Dreams and Daydreams
Reported by Individuals with Thin and Thick Boundaries
Robert G. Kunzendorf, Ernest Hartmann, Rachel Cohen, and Jennifer Cutler
In Search of Dreams: Results of Experimental Dream Research
Inge Strauch and Barbara Meier
Reviewed by Milton Kramer
Finding meaning in Dreams: A Quantitative Approach
Reviewed by Inge Strauch and Barbara Meier
This study examined whether the repression, mood congruent memory, and salience models would explain the frequency of diary recorded dream recall in two groups, one repeatedly exposed to trauma and the other living in relatively peaceful circumstances. The trauma group included 268 Palestinian children and adolescents living in a politically violent area in Gaza; the comparison group included 144 children and adolescents living in a peaceful area in Galilee. In general, the more children were exposed to trauma, the more frequently they recalled their dreams: the trauma group reported more dreams than the comparison group, and, within the trauma group, children who were repeatedly exposed to traumatic events recalled more dreams than those exposed to fewer trauma. Of the three models of dream recall, two were supported. First, salient (i.e., bizarre, vivid, emotional, active, and narratively coherent) dreams were more frequently recalled, and, second, those in which the dream mood (atmosphere and feeling) was congruent with waking mood were more frequently recalled. However, contrary to expectations, repressive coping strategies (e.g., paralysis, denial, numbing, and distraction) were associated with more frequent dream recall. Moreover, although, in general, dream recall was correlated with problems in psychological adjustment, the relationship was symptom specific: frequent dream recall shielded children from somatic and anxiety symptoms but made them more susceptible to depressive symptoms.
Key Words: dream recall; traumatic stress; psychological adjustment;
dream salience; mood-congruent memory; repression.
Robert G. Kunzendorf, Ph.D., Ernest Hartmann, M.D.,
Rachel Cohen, and Jennifer Cutler
Bizarreness of the Dreams and Daydreams Reported by Individuals with Thin and Thick Boundaries
Dreaming: Journal of the Association for the Study of Dreams. Vol 7(4) 265-271, Dec 1997
After completing a short form of the Boundary Questionnaire (Appendix A), 17 students with high scores indicative of thin boundaries and 13 students with low scores indicative of thick boundaries participated in a testing session in which they reported their "most recent dream", their "most recent daydream", another "dream that really stands out", and another "daydream that really stands out." Dreams and daydreams were rated on three 8-point scales – Bizarreness, Dreamlikeness, and Emotionality – by two independent raters who remained blind to Boundary Questionnaire scores. The dream reports were rated significantly more bizarre, more dreamlike, and more emotional than the daydream reports. In addition, the thin boundaried subjects' reports were significantly more bizarre than the thick boundaried subjects' reports. Indeed, the recent daydreams of subjects with thin boundaries were as bizarre as the recent dreams of those with thick boundaries.
Key Words: dreams; daydreams; bizarreness; boundaries.
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